Precambrian basement in the Windsor–Chatham–Sarnia area is covered by Paleozoic rocks that are up to 1300 m thick. The basement surface is characterized by a northeast–southwest arch system with a relief of about 350 m. Extensive oil and gas drilling has penetrated and sampled this basement, and an examination of core and chip samples from 133 holes and an assessment of the magnetic anomaly map of the area have been used to produce a lithologic map of the Precambrian basement. The predominant rocks are granite gneisses and syenite gneisses but also significant are gabbros, granodiorite gneisses, and metasedimentary rocks. The average foliation dips 50° and is inferred to have a northeasterly trend. The Precambrian basement has been regarded as part of the Grenville Province. An apparent Rb–Sr whole rock isochron, for predominantly meta-igneous rocks, yields an age of 1560 ± 140 Ma. This we interpret as pre-Grenvillian, surviving the later imprint of the Grenvillian Orogeny. Points excluded from the isochron register ages of 1830, 915, and 670 Ma, and can be interpreted as geologically meaningful.