Studies of Coleoptera remains from two late-glacial sites on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada, present a picture of the paleoenvironment and paleoclimate during the Allerød–Younger Dryas transition in the Maritimes region. They provide evidence for the Younger Dryas event in northeastern North America. Between 11 300 and 10 800 BP, the beetle assemblages at the Campbell site are typical of faunas of the modern middle to northern boreal forest. The West Mabou site contains beetle fossils younger than 10 900 BP, possibly as young as 10 500 BP, extending into the time period of the Younger Dryas, dated from 10 800 to 10 000 BP in the Maritimes. A "cold climate" indicator recognizable in the beetle fauna, Olophrum boreale, occurs in relative abundance and provides an interesting comparison with sites in Europe where the same northern boreo-montane species is evident at the beginning of the Younger Dryas.